Data that is not validated or poorly validated is the root cause of a number of serious security vulnerabilities affecting applications, such as Cross Site Scripting and SQL Injection. A paper entitled A Modular Approach to Data Validation in Web Applications presents an approach to performing thorough data validation in modern web applications so that the benefits of modular component based design (extensibility, portability and re-use) can be realised.

It starts with an explanation of the vulnerabilities introduced through poor validation and then goes on to discuss the merits and drawbacks of a number of common data validation strategies such as:

  • Validation in an external Web Application Firewall
  • Validation performed in the web tier (e.g. Struts)
  • Validation performed in the domain model

Finally, a modular approach is introduced together with practical examples of how to implement such a scheme in a web application, including such strategies as transformation of data to a canonical format, detecting attacks based on likely vectors, accepting only valid data (i.e., a name shouldn’t contain angle brackets), and escaping meta-characters that might have specific meaning for specific contexts (i.e., watching for characters that might execute something unexpected in a SQL engine or LDAP).


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